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- Question 1 of 2
1. QuestionCategory: First paragraph
A. It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport
system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical
transport by facilitating teleworking and tele-services, the requirement for transport continues
to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the
determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European
Union (EU] roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the
next decade the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.
B. As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in
the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers
have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ‘stock’ economy to a ‘flow’ economy. This
phenomenon has been emphasized by the relocation of some industries, particularly those
which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is
hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from
C. The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to
the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of
these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than
five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport
system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour
of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998, road haulage increased by 19.4%,
while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although – and this could
benefit the enlarged EU – it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member
D. However, a new imperative – sustainable development – offers an opportunity for
adapting the EU’s common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg
European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into
Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of
its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed
measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which
will ideally be in place in 30 years’ time, that is by 2040.
E. In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions
of C02, the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to
reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by
around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020, compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in
1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2
emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is
thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.
F. At the same time greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change
cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration
in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing
marginalisation, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling
along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.
G. The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing.
This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of
transport. In the short term it might curb the growth in road transport through the better
loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result
of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise
other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport
to take up the baton.
H. The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied
by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes [better quality of services, logistics,
technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor
does it guarantee better regional cohesion, It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than
the first approach, but road transport would keep the lion’s share of the market and continue
to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is
therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.
I. The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from
pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-
European network. This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other
modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious
than it looks, bearing in mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years,
but would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and economic
growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and goods.
Question:- Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
The example of the ‘million-dollar quartet’ underlines the writer’s point about:-
- Question 2 of 2
Innovation is key to business survival, and companies put substantial resources into inspiring
employees to develop new ideas. There are, nevertheless, people working in luxurious, state-
of-the-art centres designed to stimulate innovation who find that their environment doesn’t
make them feel at all creative. And there are those who don’t have a budget, or much space,
but who innovate successfully.
For Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, one reason that
companies don’t succeed as often as they should is that innovation starts with recruitment.
Research shows that the fit between an employee’s values and a company’s values makes a
difference to what contribution they make and whether, two years after they join, they’re still
at the company. Studies at Harvard Business School show that, although some individuals
may be more creative than others, almost every individual can be creative in the right
One of the most famous photographs in the story of rock ‘n ’roll emphasises Cialdini’s views.
The 1956 picture of singers Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Jerry Lee Lewis
jamming at a piano in Sun Studios in Memphis tells a hidden story. Sun’s ‘million-dollar
quartet’ could have been a quintet. Missing from the picture is Roy Orbison, a greater natural
singer than Lewis, Perkins or Cash. Sam Phillips, who owned Sun, wanted to revolutionise
popular music with songs that fused black and white music, and country and blues. Presley,
Cash, Perkins and Lewis instinctively understood Phillips’s ambition and believed in it.
Orbison wasn’t inspired by the goal, and only ever achieved one hit with the Sun label.
The value fit matters, says Cialdini, because innovation is, in part, a process of change, and
under that pressure we, as a species, behave differently, ‘When things change, we are hard-
wired to play it safe.’ Managers should therefore adopt an approach that appears
counterintuitive – they should explain what stands to be lost if the company fails to seize a
particular opportunity. Studies show that we invariably take more gambles when threatened
with a loss than when offered a reward.
Managing innovation is a delicate art. It’s easy for a company to be pulled in conflicting
directions as the marketing, product development, and finance departments each get different
feedback from different sets of people. And without a system which ensures collaborative
exchanges within the company, it’s also easy for small ‘pockets of innovation’ to disappear.
Innovation is a contact sport. You can’t brief people just by saying, ‘We’re going in this
direction and I’m going to take you with me.’
Cialdini believes that this ‘follow-the- leader syndrome’ is dangerous, not least because it
encourages bosses to go it alone. ‘It’s been scientifically proven that three people will be better
than one at solving problems, even if that one person is the smartest person in the field.’ To
prove his point, Cialdini cites an interview with molecular biologist James Watson. Watson,
together with Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the genetic information carrier
of all living organisms. ‘When asked how they had cracked the code ahead of an array of
highly accomplished rival investigators, he said something that stunned me. He said he and
Crick had succeeded because they were aware that they weren’t the most intelligent of the
scientists pursuing the answer. The smartest scientist was called Rosalind Franklin who,
Watson said, “was so intelligent she rarely sought advice”.’
Teamwork taps into one of the basic drivers of human behaviour. ‘The principle of social proof
is so pervasive that we don’t even recognise it,’ says Cialdini. ‘If your project is being resisted,
for example, by a group of veteran employees, ask another old-timer to speak up for it.’
Cialdini is not alone in advocating this strategy. Research shows that peer power, used
horizontally not vertically, is much more powerful than any boss’s speech.
Writing, visualising and prototyping can stimulate the flow of new ideas. Cialdini cites scores
of research papers and historical events that prove that even something as simple as writing
deepens every individual’s engagement in the project. It is, he says, the reason why all those
competitions on breakfast cereal packets encouraged us to write in saying, in no more than 10
words: ‘I like Kellogg’s Corn Flakes because.’ The very act of writing makes us more likely to
Authority doesn’t have to inhibit innovation but it often does. The wrong kind of leadership
will lead to what Cialdini calls ‘captainitis, the regrettable tendency of team members to opt
out of team responsibilities that are properly theirs’. He calls it captainitis because, he says,
‘crew members of multipilot aircraft exhibit a sometimes deadly passivity when the flight
captain makes a clearly wrong-headed decision’. This behaviour is not, he says, unique to air
travel, but can happen in any workplace where the leader is overbearing.
At the other end of the scale is the 1980s Memphis design collective, a group of young
designers for whom ‘the only rule was that there were no rules’. This environment encouraged
a free interchange of ideas, which led to more creativity with form, function, colour and
materials that revolutionised attitudes to furniture design.
Many theorists believe the ideal boss should lead from behind, taking pride in collective
accomplishment and giving credit where it is due. Cialdini says:
‘Leaders should encourage everyone to contribute and simultaneously assure all concerned
that every recommendation is important to making the right decision and will be given full
attention.’ The frustrating thing about innovation is that there are many approaches, but no
magic formula. However, a manager who wants to create a truly innovative culture can make
their job a lot easier by recognising these psychological realities.
Question:- James Watson suggests that he and Francis Crick won the race to discover the DNA code